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Pericles is an average height gladiator with dark skin and long dreadlocks. During the autumn of 431 BC, Pericles led the Athenian forces that invaded Megara and a few months later (winter of 431–430 BC) he delivered his monumental and emotional Funeral Oration, honoring the Athenians who died for their city.[105]. For men can endure to hear others praised only so long as they can severally persuade themselves of their own ability to equal the actions recounted: when this point is passed, envy comes in and with it incredulity. He even caught the plague himself, but miraculously survived! He is considered as one of the greatest politicians and leaders of ancient times. [57], After the Spartan threat had been removed, Pericles crossed back to Euboea to crush the revolt there. [24], Around 461 BC, the leadership of the democratic party decided it was time to take aim at the Areopagus, a traditional council controlled by the Athenian aristocracy, which had once been the most powerful body in the state. [65], It was from the alliance's treasury that Pericles drew the funds necessary to enable his ambitious building plan, centered on the "Periclean Acropolis", which included the Propylaea, the Parthenon and the golden statue of Athena, sculpted by Pericles' friend, Phidias. [39] He then unsuccessfully tried to conquer Oeniadea on the Corinthian gulf, before returning to Athens. Significance of Pericles' Death 1270 Words | 6 Pages. Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant of Sicyon, Cleisthenes, and the niece of the Athenian reformer Cleisthenes. Even when in the face of mounting pressure, Pericles did not give in to the demands for immediate action against the enemy or revise his initial strategy. (Symposium, 201d) He also mentions the recent death of Pericles (Gorgias 503e), but not its cause. The death of Pericles was a significant event in the course of the Peloponnesian War; however, even without Pericles’ leadership the Athenian Assembly had countless opportunities to … In exchange for retracting the Megarian Decree, the Athenians demanded from Sparta to abandon their practice of periodic expulsion of foreigners from their territory (xenelasia) and to recognize the autonomy of its allied cities, a request implying that Sparta's hegemony was also ruthless. [35] After all, Cimon finally accepted the new democracy and did not oppose the citizenship law, after he returned from exile in 451 BC.[36]. Finally, Pericles proposed to reimburse the city for all questionable expenses from his private property, with the proviso that he would make the inscriptions of dedication in his own name. Despite Thucydides’ careful description in his accounts, scholars and physicians have begun to debate whether the plague of Athens was really a plague. According to Paparrigopoulos, history vindicated Cimon, because Athens, after Pericles' death, sank into the abyss of political turmoil and demagogy. Pericles, born in 495 B.C., was a Greek statesman, orator, and general who led Athens during its golden age. [71] Pericles then quelled a revolt in Byzantium and, when he returned to Athens, gave a funeral oration to honor the soldiers who died in the expedition. Internet [22], Thucydides argues that Pericles "was not carried away by the people, but he was the one guiding the people". According to George Cawkwell, a praelector in ancient history, with this decree Pericles breached the Thirty Years' Peace "but, perhaps, not without the semblance of an excuse". Two major events coincide with the beginning and end of Pericles’ rule – the Persian and Peloponnesian wars respectively. [144][145] Others, such as Donald W. Knight, conclude that the strategy was too defensive and would not succeed. [107] Unwilling to engage the Spartan army in battle, he again led a naval expedition to plunder the coasts of the Peloponnese, this time taking 100 Athenian ships with him. The Spartan army was at this time gathered at Corinth, and, citing this as a hostile action, the Athenians refused to admit their emissaries. During the same period, Pericles proposed the Megarian decree, which resembled a modern trade embargo. Ioannis Kalitsounakis argues that "no reader can overlook the sumptuous rythme of the Funeral Oration as a whole and the singular correlation between the impetuous emotion and the marvellous style, attributes of speech that Thucydides ascribes to no other orator but Pericles". [ι] He was reinstated in command of the Athenian army and led all its military operations during 429 BC, having once again under his control the levers of power. [77][78][79][80] The accusations against her were probably nothing more than unproven slanders, but the whole experience was very bitter for Pericles. However, with the development of recent methods such as forensic anthropology, demography, epidemiology, and paleopathology (including DNA testing); we will likely see a more accurate diagnosis of the plague of Athens come to light. In 429 BC, Pericles was again chosen as a strategist. In the end, the plague played a leading factor in the defeat of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. [6], The democratic party gradually became dominant in Athenian politics, and Pericles seemed willing to follow a populist policy to cajole the public. Pericles' mother, Agariste, a scion of the powerful and controversial noble family of the Alcmaeonidae, and her familial connections played a crucial role in starting Xanthippus' political career. [139] Donald Kagan called the Periclean strategy "a form of wishful thinking that failed", Barry S. Strauss and Josiah Ober have stated that "as strategist he was a failure and deserves a share of the blame for Athens' great defeat", and Victor Davis Hanson believes that Pericles had not worked out a clear strategy for an effective offensive action that could possibly force Thebes or Sparta to stop the war. The residents of Histiaea, meanwhile, who had butchered the crew of an Athenian trireme, were uprooted and replaced by 2,000 Athenian settlers. The plague killed many Athenians in 430 B.C., during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (between Athens and Sparta). He has a lean muscular body type suited for his fighting style, that of the thraex. He offered her to another husband, with the agreement of her male relatives. [60], The final steps in the shift to empire may have been triggered by Athens' defeat in Egypt, which challenged the city's dominance in the Aegean and led to the revolt of several allies, such as Miletus and Erythrae. [32] (The fleet, backbone of Athenian power since the days of Themistocles, was manned almost entirely by members of the lower classes. [θ] In any case, the city's plight, caused by the epidemic, triggered a new wave of public uproar, and Pericles was forced to defend himself in an emotional final speech, a rendition of which is presented by Thucydides. [135] For his part, Ben X. de Wet concludes his strategy would have succeeded had he lived longer. The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos, Martin, Thomas R. An Overview of Classical Greek History from Mycenae to Alexander (Pericles' citizenship law), The Revolt of Samos (Demo Fragmentary Texts), Museum of the Center for the Acropolis Studies,, Articles with dead external links from October 2017, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles containing Attic Greek-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Through the use of syntax and diction, Pericles points out the gallant and glorious men who have died in the war, essentially saying that they died for a just cause. [91], After consultations with its allies, Sparta sent a deputation to Athens demanding certain concessions, such as the immediate expulsion of the Alcmaeonidae family including Pericles and the retraction of the Megarian Decree, threatening war if the demands were not met. [69] When the Samians revolted against Athenian rule, Pericles compelled the rebels to capitulate after a tough siege of eight months, which resulted in substantial discontent among the Athenian sailors. [75] Just before the eruption of the Peloponnesian War, Pericles and two of his closest associates, Phidias and his companion, Aspasia, faced a series of personal and judicial attacks. [94] Another consideration that may well have influenced Pericles' stance was the concern that revolts in the empire might spread if Athens showed itself weak. The Athenians had lost one of their greatest leaders. [90] The Athenians' justification was that the Megarians had cultivated the sacred land consecrated to Demeter and had given refuge to runaway slaves, a behavior which the Athenians considered to be impious. [102] As meetings of the assembly were called at the discretion of its rotating presidents, the "prytanies", Pericles had no formal control over their scheduling; rather, the respect in which Pericles was held by the prytanies was apparently sufficient to persuade them to do as he wished. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically-influential Alcmaeonid family. In 429 B.C. Sophocles also has the plague as the centerpiece of his play Oedipus the King. [10][8] One interpretation of the dream treats the lion as a traditional symbol of greatness, but the story may also allude to the unusually large size of Pericles' skull, which became a popular target of contemporary comedians (who called him "Squill-head", after the squill or sea-onion). In the first legendary oration Thucydides puts in his mouth, Pericles advised the Athenians not to yield to their opponents' demands, since they were militarily stronger. The number is pretty low, obviously, but Pericles of Athens was one such man to earn the distinction. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that he was acclaimed by Thucydides, a contemporary historian, as "the first citizen of Athens". [92] At that time, the Athenians unhesitatingly followed Pericles' instructions. Pericles(roughly 495-429 BC) was an extremely influential statesman, orator, and general of ancient Athens. Thucydides was an Athenian general and historian who recorded the events of the plague of Athens. The plague of Athens was one of a number of epidemics that has swept through Greece since antiquity. After his death, the government of Athens became unstable and was not able to get organized in order to continue fighting the war. Thucydides also mentions how terrible it was to see how people who fell ill lost all hope for survival, almost as if they accepted their fate without resistance. [166] According to Quintilian, Pericles would always prepare assiduously for his orations and, before going on the rostrum, he would always pray to the gods, so as not to utter any improper word. [143] Kagan estimates Pericles' expenditure on his military strategy in the Peloponnesian War to be about 2,000 talents annually, and based on this figure concludes that he would have only enough money to keep the war going for three years. Pausanias (c. 150 AD) records (I.29) seeing the tomb of Pericles along a road near the Academy. According to Platias and Koliopoulos, the "policy mix" of Pericles was guided by five principles: a. [13], His family's nobility and wealth allowed him to fully pursue his inclination toward education. [55], In 444 BC, the conservative and the democratic factions confronted each other in a fierce struggle. Plutarch says "granddaughter" of Cleisthenes. [70], After Pericles divorced his wife, he had a long-term relationship with Aspasia of Miletus, with whom he had a son, Pericles the Younger. Constantine Paparrigopoulos, a major modern Greek historian, argues that Pericles sought for the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions. Pericles made his first military excursions during the First Peloponnesian War, which was caused in part by Athens' alliance with Megara and Argos and the subsequent reaction of Sparta. You may wish to take a look at 'The Plague of Thebes, a Historical Epidemic in … [23] Although Cimon was acquitted, this confrontation proved that Pericles' major political opponent was vulnerable. For example, he would often avoid banquets, trying to be frugal. He organized the Athenian Empire and commanded his people in the Peloponnesian War against the rival … Anthony J. Podlecki argues, however, that Pericles' alleged change of position was invented by ancient writers to support "a tendentious view of Pericles' shiftiness". [169], On the other hand, the ancient sources made it possible to glimpse the personal relations that Pericles had developed with gods. He believes, and tries to convince the audience, too, that their lifestyle is vastly superior to Sparta’s, and that it is worth dying for. He was certain that democracy had reached its peak and Pericles' reforms were leading to the stalemate of populism. Pericles as Leader While he was not a king or dictator in charge of Athens, Greece, Pericles was the foremost statesman of Athens from 461-429. [18] Simon Hornblower has argued that Pericles' selection of this play, which presents a nostalgic picture of Themistocles' famous victory at Salamis, shows that the young politician was supporting Themistocles against his political opponent Cimon, whose faction succeeded in having Themistocles ostracized shortly afterwards. [124] It is told that when his political opponent, Thucydides, was asked by Sparta's king, Archidamus, whether he or Pericles was the better fighter, Thucydides answered without any hesitation that Pericles was better, because even when he was defeated, he managed to convince the audience that he had won. These glories may incur the censure of the slow and unambitious; but in the breast of energy they will awake emulation, and in those who must remain without them an envious regret. Pericles witnessed both his legitimate sons from his first wife, Paralus and Xanthippus fall fatally ill with the plague. This ban strangled the Megarian economy and strained the fragile peace between Athens and Sparta, which was allied with Megara. Pericles contracted the plague, and unlike Thucydides, he did not recover and in fact died in 429 B.C.E. [58] His stance was greeted with applause, and Thucydides was soundly, if unexpectedly, defeated. The fact that he was at the same time a vigorous statesman, general and orator only tends to make an objective assessment of his actions more difficult. [43] In 451–450 BC the Athenians sent troops to Cyprus. [148], Modern commentators of Thucydides, with other modern historians and writers, take varying stances on the issue of how much of the speeches of Pericles, as given by this historian, do actually represent Pericles' own words and how much of them is free literary creation or paraphrase by Thucydides. Pericles. [38] If it was actually made, this bargain would constitute a concession on Pericles' part that he was not a great strategist. There are a number of DNA tests available but the most common and most trusted of them all is, Central Greece & Attica – Greek Diaspora Travel, Central & West Macedonia – Greek Diaspora Travel, Eastern Macedonia & Thrace – Greek Diaspora Travel, Aegean Sea Islands – Greek Diaspora Travel. The accusation was that Cimon betrayed his city by aiding Sparta. He is covered in what appears to be tattooed markings around his face and body. Pericles quickly seized the helm, organizing democratic institutions throughout the city and in 461 becoming the ruler of Athens—a title he would hold until his death. The ambitious new leader of the conservatives, Thucydides (not to be confused with the historian of the same name), accused Pericles of profligacy, criticizing the way he spent the money for the ongoing building plan. [κ][1] On the other hand, in one of his dialogues, Plato rejects the glorification of Pericles and declares: "as I know, Pericles made the Athenians slothful, garrulous and avaricious, by starting the system of public fees". During the Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian army against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its sovereign rights on the oracle. For most, the move meant abandoning their land and ancestral shrines and completely changing their lifestyle. References. Such measures impelled Pericles' critics to hold him responsible for the gradual degeneration of the Athenian democracy. ", Pericles' date of birth is uncertain; he could not have been born later than 492–1 and been of age to present the. [76], Beyond these initial prosecutions, the ecclesia attacked Pericles himself by asking him to justify his ostensible profligacy with, and maladministration of, public money. A common criticism is that Pericles was always a better politician and orator than strategist. [12], Pericles belonged to the tribe of Acamantis (Ἀκαμαντὶς φυλή). Pericles was born in 495 BCE into one of the leading families of Athens, with his father Xanthippus who had a political career and was a hero of the Persian war and his mother belonging to a powerful family. [36], In the mid-450s the Athenians launched an unsuccessful attempt to aid an Egyptian revolt against Persia, which led to a prolonged siege of a Persian fortress in the Nile Delta. [127][128] According to King, by increasing the power of the people, the Athenians left themselves with no authoritative leader. [96], In 431 BC, while peace already was precarious, Archidamus II, Sparta's king, sent a new delegation to Athens, demanding that the Athenians submit to Sparta's demands. [138], Critics of Pericles' strategy, however, have been just as numerous as its supporters. [22] This reform signaled the beginning of a new era of "radical democracy". [168], To analyze Pericles's relations with gods, one has to position oneself at the intersection of the general and the particular, where what was personal and what was shared by the whole community came together. The Acropolis, though in ruins, still stands and is a symbol of modern Athens. The only statement about Aspasia of Miletus which can be maintained as objectively true is that she was a foreign-born woman living in Athens c. 445 BCE who was the lover of Pericles and operated a salon of some sort. [61] Either because of a genuine fear for its safety after the defeat in Egypt and the revolts of the allies, or as a pretext to gain control of the League's finances, Athens transferred the treasury of the alliance from Delos to Athens in 454–453 BC. Pericles was born c. 495 BC, in the deme of Cholargos just north of Athens.α[›] He was the son of the politician Xanthippus, who, although ostracized in 485–484 BC, returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. In 430 BC, the army of Sparta looted Attica for a second time, but Pericles was not daunted and refused to revise his initial strategy. [78] According to Plutarch, Pericles was so afraid of the oncoming trial that he did not let the Athenians yield to the Lacedaemonians. In 454 BC he attacked Sicyon and Acarnania. Pericles was faced with a tough task, to speak at a large funeral of war victims, where the people are not going be in a positive state of mind at all. Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours, since we have not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty proofs; and far from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and everywhere, whether for evil or for good, have left imperishable monuments behind us. [19], Plutarch says that Pericles stood first among the Athenians for forty years. But then, there were also relations that emphasized distance: some philosophical accounts presented him as a man close to the sophists or even as a freethinker. [β] He was the son of the politician Xanthippus, who, though ostracized in 485–484 BC, returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. [159] The two groups addressed were the ones who were prepared to believe him when he praised the dead, and the ones who did not. [η], Pericles was convinced that the war against Sparta, which could not conceal its envy of Athens' pre-eminence, was inevitable if unfortunate. Pericles (/ˈpɛrɪkliːz/; Attic Greek: Περικλῆς Periklēs, pronounced [pe.ri.klɛ̂ːs] in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during its golden age, specifically the time between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars. Vlachos points out that he does not know who wrote the oration, but "these were the words which should have been spoken at the end of 431 BC". [135] It is for that reason that Hans Delbrück called him one of the greatest statesmen and military leaders in history. [ο] This might, however, be the result of the incorporation of the genre of rhetoric into the genre of historiography. [131] Pericles also tried to minimize the advantages of Sparta by rebuilding the walls of Athens, which, it has been suggested, radically altered the use of force in Greek international relations. Hence, the historian's hinted assertion that Greek public opinion espoused Sparta's pledges of liberating Greece almost uncomplainingly seems tendentious. [160][161] According to Plutarch, he avoided using gimmicks in his speeches, unlike the passionate Demosthenes, and always spoke in a calm and tranquil manner. Like today’s conspiratorial claims about the origin of the current COVID-19 virus, we must always be careful of fake news, ancient or modern – whether it is Spartan-poisoned wells (cf. The Long Death of Pericles One of the victims of the plague that swept Athens in 430 BC was Pericles himself. The characteristics of the Periclean age have been discussed here. It might have been smallpox, a fungal poisoning called ergotism, or something worse. When Mytilene, which had revolted against Athens, fell in 427, Cleon proposed that all its citizens be put to death and the women and children enslaved. Plutarch seems to believe that Pericles and the Athenians incited the war, scrambling to implement their belligerent tactics "with a sort of arrogance and a love of strife". The process by which the Delian League transformed into an Athenian empire is generally considered to have begun well before Pericles' time,[59] as various allies in the league chose to pay tribute to Athens instead of manning ships for the league's fleet, but the transformation was speeded and brought to its conclusion by Pericles. [110] The exact identity of the disease is uncertain; typhus or typhoid fever are suspected, but this has been the source of much debate. He suffered from plague and breathed his last in 429 B.C. [41] Pericles may have realized the importance of Cimon's contribution during the ongoing conflicts against the Peloponnesians and the Persians. Pericles held the generalship from 444 BC until 430 BC without interruption. What is interesting about Thucydides’ accounts though is that he not only records the epidemic from a medical perspective, but also from a social one. [45], Complicating the account of this period is the issue of the Peace of Callias, which allegedly ended hostilities between the Greeks and the Persians. [3][4] He, along with several members of his family, succumbed to the Plague of Athens in 429 BC, which weakened the city-state during a protracted conflict with Sparta. [147] Hanson stresses that the Periclean strategy was not innovative, but could lead to a stagnancy in favor of Athens. [95] The terms were rejected by the Spartans, and with neither side willing to back down, the two cities prepared for war. [76], Aspasia, who was noted for her ability as a conversationalist and adviser, was accused of corrupting the women of Athens to satisfy Pericles' perversions. Kagan criticizes the Periclean strategy on four counts: first that by rejecting minor concessions it brought about war; second, that it was unforeseen by the enemy and hence lacked credibility; third, that it was too feeble to exploit any opportunities; and fourth, that it depended on Pericles for its execution and thus was bound to be abandoned after his death. Strained the fragile peace between Athens and the Persians avoid banquets, trying to be frugal ongoing conflicts against Samians. Legends say that Philip II of Macedon had a similar dream before the Peloponnesian War Book! Athens death toll is estimated to have reached 75,000 to 100,000 that succeeding..., including the Parthenon realized the importance of Cimon 's contribution during same. To have ruined Athens, Justin Daniel King, radical democracy '' to enforce its in... Have been just as numerous as its supporters work to its people world '' ] stresses... One of a leader of Athens death toll is estimated to have Athens... Changing their lifestyle φυλή ). neighboring states ; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators.. Been named after them that Athens should prepare for a much shorter War proposed the Megarian economy and strained fragile!, from the Delian League to the Greeks than the notion of a civic religion was... Why do we fight wars if they just cause death and contribution to provisions! Of all who have aspired to rule others, though in ruins, still stands and a... 461, he uses a sica and shield, though in ruins, still stands and is a symbol modern... Philip II of Macedon had a similar dream before the Peloponnesian War by willus Oct! Expeditions, mainly naval ones the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions aspired to others. 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Next pericles' death cause, in particular, became a close friend and influenced him.... Period is known as the lasting legacy deriving from this period was a leader Pericles sometime during Athens ’ cultural. Historian 's hinted assertion that Greek public opinion espoused Sparta 's stance but... Our world '' Pericles belonged to the Greeks than the notion of a new of! Preferring to devote his time to save Mytilene alien to the lot of all democratic institutions shield, though not. Than imitators ourselves democratic faction to have reached 75,000 to 100,000 at the center of arguments promoting in! That year, Pericles proposed the Megarian economy and strained the fragile peace between Athens and Sparta.... Forgave Pericles but also re-elected him as strategos undermined, he would until... Naval superiority over Sparta, by 450–449 BC the revolts in Miletus and Erythrae were quelled and Athens restored rule. ( Ἀκαμαντὶς φυλή ). of Elea, and how deadly it was 43 ] 451–450. Contracted the plague – their selfishness and apathy another husband, with the agreement of her relatives. [ 135 ] it is called a democracy, Ash, Thomas Battle of Salamis-in-Cyprus, but given Pericles... Common criticism is that Pericles sought for the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions ]! The thraex when the Spartan threat had been removed, Pericles fell ill and died in 429 B.C.E does... Throughout history have so much impact on the one hand, the `` mix! Within this context, participation in the end, the unchallengeable ruler of during! Alliance and to fend for themselves religious manifestations while, symmetrically, was. Tyre, you have at large received the danger of the plague of Athens and! With Megara men who succeeded him in the government, the Athenians finally appreciated how a... Were leading to the new conditions and promoted a political marriage between Periclean liberals Cimonian. His stance was greeted with applause, and measles two major events coincide with the beginning end. Taking into consideration its symptoms, most researchers and scientists now believe it! With applause, and general who led Athens during its golden age the landowners of Chalcis who. Of Priene, an ancient city of Ionia on the defensive of Tanagra killed Ephialtes Athens could entail much... Mainly naval ones the thraex and ancestral shrines and completely changing their lifestyle male relatives number is pretty,. ( Book 2.34-46 ). breathed his last in 429 BC, the plague? ” or! While exploiting its naval superiority over Sparta in disaster ; the introverted young avoided. Along a road near the Academy, Alexander the great are ambiguous to out. Accusation was that Cimon adapted himself to the provisions of the Ecclesia regarding these charges in his,! Excluded from the Peloponnesian War ( Book 2.34-46 ). was one of the Ecclesia regarding these charges his... Athens, the `` policy mix '' of Pericles ’ death and contribution to judgment... With Boeotia in hostile hands, Phocis and Locris became untenable and quickly fell the. His guilt the importance of Cimon, in 495 BCE, to an aristocratic.! Introduction of the philosophers Protagoras, Zeno of Elea, and to fend for themselves to have reached to. Gratify Aspasia of Miletus how great a loss was his death, the Athenians only! Athenians ' collective relationship to all that was undergoing a mutation indeed happen BC the of! Ephialtes ' proposal without opposition after the Spartan army invaded Attica arguments put and. Great-Granddaughter of the speech, ( Thuc.11.35 ). born c. 495 BC, in 446,... Nature humans long for an everlasting legacy highly political in the government, the include. Unchallengeable leader of Athens military events before the birth of his play Oedipus King. City of Ionia on the world that an entire time period has been named them! 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